TESA/PESA

What is TESA/PESA?

In men, sometimes the sperms are absent in the semen.This could be due to either the sperms are not produced by the testis or due to outflow obstruction.If azoospermia is due to outflow obstruction then we can retrieve sperms directly from the testis by a procedure termed TESA/PESA.

Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
    TESA is performed on patients suffering from Obstructive azoospermia.
    In TESA procedure sperm is directly extracted from the testicles by passing a fine needle directly into the testicle.
    The retrieved sperm then can be injected into the woman’s oocytes by ICSI to form an embryo.
    Before performing TESA, tests are done to check whether sperms are present or can be obtained at the biopsy.
    Sperms extracted by TESA can be frozen and used later.
Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA)
    PESA procedure is usually performed under sedation with pain relief, or else can also be done under general anesthetic
    In some men, sperm can be extracted directly from the epididymis by passing a fine needle through the skin of the scrotum and placing it in the epididymis
    Small amounts of fluid is collected and then examined for traces of sperm
    The retrieved sperm is then prepared and then injected directly into eggs using ICSI technique.

If there is a condition where men produce sperms but are unable to reach ejaculation due to

    Absence of vas deferens (tubes that carry the sperm)
    Blockage of vas deference secondary to any infection
    Other conditions like low sperm count or motility